Select Page
  

 

One of the dominant strategies in downtown development is to draw visitors (and/or residents) into the city. Cities have used a predictable playbook: constructing convention centers, stadiums, festival malls, etc. and using financial inducements (usually tax breaks) to draw in business partners. Examples from Memphis include Cook Convention Center, Redbirds/Forum, and Crosstown Concourse. Do you think this strategy has benefitted Memphis and which Memphians have or have not benefitted?  Has it been effective in drawing visitors and/or residents? Why or why not? If you don’t live in Memphis, consider some examples of downtown development in your area and apply these questions. Please provide examples and evidence from the readings and films to support your arguments. 

PADM 7224
1

MODULE

Seminar in Urban Problems

PADM 7224

University of Memphis
Department of Public &

Nonprofit Administration

Edwards & Imrie (2015)
Chapters 5 & 6

3

PADM 7224
2

CHAPTER 5: COMMUNITY
PLANNING AND PARTNERSHIP

Edwards & Imrie (2015) The Short Guide to Urban Policy

PADM 7224
3

Community Planning and Partnership

 Renew/improve cities through
community engagement

 How do to it?

Note: Reminder that several parts of this book discuss urban policy
outside of the U.S. Most of the examples in this chapter focus on
community-based urban policy in the United Kingdom (UK).

PADM 7224
4

Community Planning and Partnership
Defining Community

 What is community?
 Complex term with socially constructed boundaries
 Often seen as positive concept – used by policy-

makers to spur change (e.g., “there is a breakdown in
our community, so we need to act)

 4 common conceptualizations:
 Community as a place/geography (e.g., Memphis)
 Community as an interest group (e.g., Black

community)
 Community organizations (e.g., nonprofits)
 Community as process (e.g., community development)

PADM 7224
5

Community Planning and Partnership
Community & the Urban Problem

 ~19th century urbanization was described as
antithesis of “community”
 Conceptualization of the urban “community” was

different than the rural “community”
 Urban policy typically targets “communities” to

encourage citizens to participate in urban
regeneration, or create “community”

 Shift in urban policy from social community
regeneration (prior late 1970s) to economic
community regeneration (post late 1970s)

PADM 7224
6

Community Planning and Partnership
Reinvigorating Community in the 1990s

 Communitarianism – idea that collective
bonds with those around us are
important to prevent social exclusion,
which leads to urban decline

 Build social capital – linkages that
connect people – to build urban renewal

 Communities should be given the
responsibility to drive change

PADM 7224
7

Community Planning and Partnership
Putting Community Activation into Practice

 Community-based urban policy changes
governance – private (for-profit and non-
profit) organizations have more seats at the
governing table

 Level of community-involvement can vary
substantially from policy to policy – from
“add-ons” to “key partners”

 All communities (neighborhoods) do not
have the existing expertise, knowledge, or
ability to engage in policy-making

PADM 7224
8

Community Planning and Partnership
Critiquing Community Involvement in Regeneration

 Unanswered questions –
 Is community involvement in policy-making

simply tokenism by government or is it of
actual value?

 Is the policy implemented with the level of
community involvement intended in the
spirit of the policy?

PADM 7224
9

Community Planning and Partnership
Critiquing Community Involvement in Regeneration

 Looking for answers –
 Who represents the community?
 “Community” as conceptualized by policy-makers and

implementers often differs from those living in the
community

 Who sets the rules for participation?
 Policy-makers (city or broader) often continue to

create the top-down rules for engagement
 How is power distributed in community

partnerships?
 “Expert” knowledge tends to be prioritized over

“localized” knowledge

PADM 7224
10

Privatization & Entrepreneurial Urban Policy
Web Links

 British Library – Community
Development and Regeneration
 https://www.bl.uk/social-

welfare/collection-
items?allportalsubjects=community%20de
velopment%20and%20regeneration

PADM 7224
11

CHAPTER 6: CULTURE & THE
CREATIVE CITY

Edwards & Imrie (2015) The Short Guide to Urban Policy

PADM 7224
12

Culture & the Creative City

 Key to modern urban policy is promoting
the city’s culture and creativity to improve
well-being (economic and social)
 Festivals, sport facilities and events, “place-

marketing”
 General idea – cultural strategies lead to

economic development
 Critical question – who benefits from this

policy and what who does the policy attract
to the city?

PADM 7224
13

Culture & the Creative City:
Origins of Culture-Led Urban Policy & Regen

 Growing trend since late 20th century to
market/promote culture to grow the city

 For many it was a part of a “reinventing”
process after loss of manufacturing
industry – adapting to a post-industrial
world

 Challenged traditional urban planning with
a shot of innovation

 New “cultural” industries (i.e., the arts) to
attract – fashion, design, music, film, etc.

PADM 7224
14

Culture & the Creative City:
Origins of Culture-Led Urban Policy & Regen
 Florida’s “Creative Class” (2002)
 General idea – to thrive cities need to

attract new class of educated
professionals who work in post-
industrial tech, knowledge, and
cultural industries; to attract them
cities need to cater to their
“bohemian” lifestyle (three “T’s”)

 Highly influential, but controversial
 Blamed for (or contributed to) large

influx of gentrification and increasing
inequality in the 21st century city

 U.S counties by “creativity index”

PADM 7224
15

Culture & the Creative City:
Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices

 Not one specific “cultural promotion”
policy, multiple initiatives and strategies

 Culture defined as art vs. culture defined as
society – different policy approaches

 Typical goal is that these policies lead to
economic consumption (e.g., coffee shops,
shopping/retail, nightlife, etc.) and vibrant
public spaces
 Typically creates neighborhood pockets

(“cultural quarters” – see figure 6.7, p. 162)
 Culture and fads change, is it sustainable?

PADM 7224
16

Culture & the Creative City:
Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices

 Flagship urban development
 Revitalizing urban areas with large

construction and architecture projects (such as
inner city, waterfront, etc.)

 “…even the most landlocked cities have done
their best to find some sort of waterfront” (p.
163)

 Place-marketing (“re-branding”)
 Promote distinctive cultural features that set

apart the city, attract investment
 Brand decay? Does the image represent all

local identities?

PADM 7224
17

Culture & the Creative City:
Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices

 Cultural Events and Festivals
 Large-scale, short-term events that attract

tourism and investment
 Also used to increase concept of

“community”, improve social bonds, and
reduce social exclusion

 Example – Memphis in May
 Example – soccer stadium in Chester, PA
 Competitive example – Olympic Games

bidding process

PADM 7224
18

Culture & the Creative City:
Debating Culture-led Urban Policy

 What much weight should we put into
cultural-led regeneration efforts?
 Exists a knowledge gap in actual impact –

both economic and social
 Further exploration needed in trickle-down

effects and sustainability of efforts
 Multiple different types of strategies (i.e.,

policies) that fall within this “bucket” with
multiple different outcomes

PADM 7224
19

Culture & the Creative City:
Debating Culture-led Urban Policy

“The evidence shows that community-
based participatory cultural projects are
likely to be far more beneficial in
sustaining urban regeneration, but in the
eyes of city marketers and management,
such projects are less glamorous and
unlikely to project a city onto the world
stage.” (p. 170)

PADM 7224
20

Culture & the Creative City:
Debating Culture-led Urban Policy

 Whose culture is being promoted?
 Tension between successful cultural

marketing (what attracts economic
development) and real social inclusion
(what brings all people together)

 Not always mutually exclusive, but can be
 Political power struggles lie at the center of

this question

PADM 7224
21

Culture & the Creative City:
Debating Culture-led Urban Policy

 Does cultural marketing eventually result
in “sameness” promotion?
 All cities are promoting the same type of

cultural regeneration which “homogenizes
urban environments”

 Fast policy transfer – X policy worked in City A
so why can’t it work in City B; flawed logic

 Florida’s creative class thesis neglects
importance of city context in policymaking
and implementation

PADM 7224
22

Culture & the Creative City:
Web Links

 Charles Landry (prolific author on
creative cities
 https://charleslandry.com/about-charles-

landry/biography/

 Urban Studies Special Issue on Culture-
led Regeneration
 https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/usja/42/

5-6

  • Edwards & Imrie (2015)�Chapters 5 & 6
  • Chapter 5: Community Planning and Partnership
  • Community Planning and Partnership
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Defining Community
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Community & the Urban Problem
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Reinvigorating Community in the 1990s
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Putting Community Activation into Practice
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Critiquing Community Involvement in Regeneration
  • Community Planning and Partnership�Critiquing Community Involvement in Regeneration
  • Privatization & Entrepreneurial Urban Policy Web Links
  • Chapter 6: Culture & the Creative City
  • Culture & the Creative City
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Origins of Culture-Led Urban Policy & Regen
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Origins of Culture-Led Urban Policy & Regen
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Deploying Culture: Strategies & Practices
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Debating Culture-led Urban Policy
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Debating Culture-led Urban Policy
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Debating Culture-led Urban Policy
  • Culture & the Creative City:�Debating Culture-led Urban Policy
  • Culture & the Creative City: �Web Links

PADM 7224
1

MODULE

Seminar in Urban Problems

PADM 7224

University of Memphis
Department of Public &

Nonprofit Administration

Euchner & McGovern (2003)
Chapter 2 – Poverty & the

Divided Metropolis

2

PADM 7224
2

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis

 Poverty – “lack of adequate provisions
for the basic necessities for living
established by society” to be an active
and contributing member of society
 “Basic necessities” is debatable – universal

medical care is a constant debate in the U.S.
 Absolute standard (what needed to get by)

vs. relative standard (what needed to have
fair footing with others)

PADM 7224
3

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis

 Summarized impact of poverty:
 “But the effects of poverty ripple out beyond

impoverished households and touch the lives of
virtually all urban residents. When poverty
rises, many other issues are affected…crime
rate goes up…decay and abandonment of
housing… strains on the public school
system…tax revenues fall…communities that
suffer disinvestment and depopulation
experience a weakening in the bonds of civil
society…class and racial segregation follow, as
more affluent people distance themselves from
poor communities.“ (p. 35-36)

PADM 7224
4

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis

 Urban policy has traditionally
contributed to segregation in the city
between the poor and affluent or middle
class

 Poverty is everywhere – cities, suburbs,
and rural areas; concentrated poverty is
most evident in cities

PADM 7224
5

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Measuring Poverty

 Central to the story is Mollie Orshansky,
“Miss Poverty”
 Poverty line calculation developed in the U.S.

Social Security Administration in 1963
 Same measure of poverty is used today

 Criticisms of the poverty line calculation
 Doesn’t consider “in-kind” benefits received by

the poor (e.g., Medicaid)
 Out of touch with today’s economy –

calculation relies heavily on food costs which
are only one-sixth of the typical family budget
today

PADM 7224
6

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Measuring Poverty

 Why continue to use a 60-year-old poverty
line calculation?
 Lack of political support – new calculation

would likely drastically increase the aid needed
to be delivered

 New calculation would likely make U.S. income
inequality look even worse a global stage

 Easier to track changes when using the same
calculation

 Poor neighborhoods have better access to
material benefits in modern America (e.g.,
cell phones) – but typically less social
capital than previous generations

PADM 7224
7

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Dimensions of Poverty in the U.S.

The changing geography of US poverty

PADM 7224
8

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Dimensions of Poverty in the U.S.

 Working poor – contributing to the labor
market but not earning enough income to
raise above the poverty line
 Typical sectors/jobs include retail, restaurant

service industry, custodial, maintenance,
medical care, many others…

 Disproportionally minority populations
 Combat working poverty – growing

support for a Living Wage vs. a minimum
wage that doesn’t keep up with costs of
living to

PADM 7224
9

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Causes of Poverty

 Identifying factors that contribute to
poverty from different levels of analysis
 Individual – lack of education, poor access to

jobs, medical conditions, alcohol and drug use
 Family/Community – unstable home

environment; lack of parental role models;
perpetual “culture of poverty”

 Economy/Society – structure of capitalism
inevitably creates inequality and a poverty
class; racial discrimination hinders ability of
minorities to rise out of poverty

 Government – public policies either enable or
hinder ability to rise out of poverty

PADM 7224
10

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
The Evolution of the Welfare State

 Government benefits/entitlements for
certain groups/classes originated with
pensions for Revolutionary War veterans

 Local governments focused on public
assistance for poor in their area to foster
sense of “community”

 Industrial Revolution escalated challenges
of urbanism, including poverty; state
governments began to get involved with
public program

PADM 7224
11

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
The Evolution of the Welfare State
 Catalyst for federal government involvement

was the 1929 stock market crash, but at a slow
pace

 FDR’s New Deal (1933-1939) established
multiple social programs to benefit
unemployed and poor
 “people entered into a kind of social contract with

the government: in return for work or other
commitments, they got benefits” (p. 69)

 Social Security Act of 1935 established old-age
pension – drastically reduced and prevented
elder poverty – and system of unemployment
insurance

PADM 7224
12

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
The Evolution of the Welfare State

 Truman (late 40’s, early 50’s) – expanded
Social Security, established minimum
wage, legislation for public housing, and
the GI Bill

 LBJ’s Great Society (1964-68) – landmark
legislation that focused on extending
access to basic rights for minorities and
disadvantaged; reduced poverty
 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Open

Housing Act
 Entitlement programs – food stamps,

Medicare, Medicaid, WIC, Head Start, etc.

PADM 7224
13

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
The Evolution of the Welfare State

 Nixon (1970s) – expanded social welfare safety
net
 COLA to Social Security; Blind and disabled

assistance at federal level; Job programs (CETA);
Affirmative action policies

 Growing support for conservative scholars in
the 1970s (including controversial Charles
Murray, see AEI and SPLC) who argued against a
welfare state and any benefit of such

 Regan (1980s) – “replace the carrot of work
incentives with the sticks of work
requirements”

PADM 7224
14

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
The Evolution of the Welfare State

 Welfare reform in the 1990s
 Bush and Clinton granted state waivers to alter

their AFDC programs (“laboratories of
democracy”)

 Tighter eligibility restrictions, shorter
timeframes, work requirements, penalties for
failure to comply

 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)
 Idea was to shift from dependency to self-reliance
 Replaced AFDC with block-grant-based TANF
 Shifted power to states to create own welfare

programs

PADM 7224
15

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Evaluating Welfare Reform

 What defines success of welfare reform?
 Primary measure used – reduction in families

receiving assistance (caseload declines)
 Reform caused sharp decline in caseloads
 Have those families really transitioned out of

poverty?
 Some studies suggest employment is high for

those who left welfare, yet wages are still
below poverty line

 Success depends on one’s interpretation of
the goal of reform

 Different outcomes in different states

PADM 7224
16

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Future of Welfare Policy

 States look to each other for innovative reform
ideas and best practices (Wisconsin’s W-2) –
think policy transfer or policy diffusion

 “… to reduce welfare dependency and poverty
over the long run, the emphasis on personal
responsibility must be coupled with a broader
sense of public obligation” (p. 89)

 Policy suggestions – increase support service
for people with minimal skills; reconsider
lifetime limits; reconsider limits on education
and job-training; reconsider restricted eligibility

 Urban welfare reform requires coupling with
economic development

PADM 7224
17

Poverty & the Divided Metropolis:
Future of Welfare Policy

 What will be the lasting impact of the
COVID-19 pandemic on welfare policy?
 Center for Budget and Policy Priorities

(CBPP) COVID Hardship Watch
 Urban Institute COVID-19 Policies to Protect

People and Communities
 World Economic Forum – COVID-19 could

change the welfare state forever
 Chicago Tribune – About 6 months in, will

the COVID-19 pandemic change Americans’
views of the social safety net?

  • Euchner & McGovern (2003)�Chapter 2 – Poverty & the Divided Metropolis
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: Measuring Poverty
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: Measuring Poverty
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: Dimensions of Poverty in the U.S.
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: Dimensions of Poverty in the U.S.
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �Causes of Poverty
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �The Evolution of the Welfare State
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �The Evolution of the Welfare State
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �The Evolution of the Welfare State
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �The Evolution of the Welfare State
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �The Evolution of the Welfare State
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �Evaluating Welfare Reform
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �Future of Welfare Policy
  • Poverty & the Divided Metropolis: �Future of Welfare Policy